4 TYPES OF AI YOU TOTALLY NEED TO KNOW ABOUT!

The next time you ask Siri to set a reminder or Cortana to assist you with checking your mails, pause and think about this. Both Siri and Cortana are mere software systems created by human-beings like you and me. Yet, they can not only understand and assist you in your tasks, but also promptly change the flow of their conversations based on your commands! Over the years, we have successfully managed to create applications that can not only satisfy the user’s immediate demands, but also display innate emotional intelligence and the ability to independently adapt themselves to new situations and information.
We’ve already discussed the key differences between Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning. But can Artificial Intelligence by itself consist of further bifurcations? We’re back with a blog; and today, let’s have a look at the further classifications of AI:

1. REACTIVE MACHINES: LIVING. IN. THE. PRESENT. MOMENT.

Living in the present is definitely a positive attribute. But does that mean one forgets every event or action that occurred in the past? Well, reactive technology functions somewhat like that. Yes, these machines can adapt to the situations at hand and react accordingly. However, they do not have the ability to learn from previous experiences, let alone apply such knowledge to the present.
An interesting example of a reactive AI machine is Google’s AlphaGo. This game is the online version of the popular board-game Go, and it applies a neural network system to evaluate each player’s move. This game has managed to defeat Go experts by reacting to their moves with its ‘intellect’. But it cannot predict further moves of the player by his/her previous actions, or based on general inferences drawn from the various games played earlier. Another very popular instance of reactive machines is Deep Blue, the supercomputer by IBM that is an expert at chess.

2. LIMITED MEMORY: ‘CAUSE SHORT-TERM MEMORY ALSO GOES A LONG WAY SOMETIMES!

And then there’s another category of AI machines – limited memory. As the name suggests, these machines do have memory, but it’s rather limited. They can base their actions on immediate previous learning, but cannot store learned information to utilize in future. For instance, self-driving vehicles have the ability to read sign-posts, traffic signals etc. and navigate accordingly. They can also convey their decisions to change lanes and follow traffic rules. However, these machines do not have a ‘long-term’ memory and function merely on the basis of their perceptions of very recent instances.

3. IT’S ALL IN THE MIND – THE THEORY OF MIND IN AI

Undoubtedly, the human mind still reigns supreme over all advancements in science and technology. And rightly so, because the human brain is the ultimate source of all inventions and discoveries we so heavily rely on. But…what if we manage to produce technology that can recognize human emotions and predict behavior? While we still have a long way to go in terms of manufacturing such ‘sensitive’ machines, we are definitely on the way. The sentiment analyzer, for instance, is an important feature in chatbots and virtual assistants. With this feature, it is possible for these software systems to recognize the user’s emotional state by his/her tone of speech, and react accordingly. This stage in AI transcends the popular definitions of ‘machine’, thus bringing it (somewhat eerily) closer to human perceptions and behavior.

4. SELF-AWARENESS: WHAT IF TECHNOLOGY INDULGES IN SELF-REFLECTION?

Think about it: What if technology begins to think for itself? Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is an early description of the chaos that may take place if technology begins to dominate over its own creators. At this stage, technology dons the cloak of consciousness, realizing not only that another being is acting a certain way, but also analyzing the reason behind this behavior. It’s not only about what one does, but also the whys and the hows of the same. And yes, you guessed right. Mankind hasn’t been able to device such types of technology yet. But…never say never, right?

CONCLUSION

So that was all about the 4 major types of AI technology. While the last 2 types of Artificial Intelligence have not yet been actively initiated on a large scale, technology is rapidly advancing to meet the ever-rising (and never-ending!) human needs. AI technology is definitely taking the world to places – but as always, we know one thing for sure: a proper balance between the two types of intelligence is the sure fire way to go!

OUR OTHER BLOGS ON AI:

1. AI versus Human Intelligence: The Basic Differences
2. AI in Cybersecurity
3. AI in Education

REFERENCES

1. Zeolearn
2. GovTech
3. Analytics Training

AI IN FORENSIC SCIENCE: 5 Ways in Which AI is a Success in Criminal Investigation

Fingerprints and evidences. Crimes and investigations. Magnifying glasses and test reports. Detectives and forensic experts. Sidney Sheldon and Goodfellas and Catch Me If You Can…you get the point. We’re definitely referring to crime thrillers and all the paraphernalia we can associate this genre with.

Think about the last time you heard or read about a criminal investigation being carried out. Was it only the cops or the CBI or any such equivalent investigation body typically dealing with the entire case? While it is often people from these domains who ostensibly handle such investigations, another very prominent branch is the forensic department. Whether it’s matching fingerprints, conducting postmortem or producing forensic reports, this department does it all. With rapid technical advancement in all the fields, particularly in the domain of investigation and forensic science, Artificial Intelligence has successfully made its grand entry into this domain as well! How is AI being implemented in the field of forensic science?
Last time, we spoke to you about the role of RPA in law. Well, we’re back with a blog; and today, let’s have a look at the role of AI in forensics:

1.  INVESTIGATION IS FUN, BUT CAN WE SAY THE SAME ABOUT CONSOLIDATING DATA?

Forensic investigation involves extensive research collecting of evidence from different sources and then consolidating the same in order to arrive at logical conclusions. While the process of vigilantly deriving such data from ‘mysterious’ sources can certainly be a productive and interesting job, handling large chunks of data can often be confusing and chaotic. AI can help forensic experts with handling data effectively and performing meta-analysis at various levels during the investigation. This can save a considerable amount of time and also ensure that forensic investigators have enough time and inclination to work on other important tasks!

2. OKAY…BUT WILL AI ALSO ENSURE THAT ALL THIS DATA IS ACCESSIBLE? YES!

AI understands that it’s not sufficient to merely collect and analyse information. The collected data must also be easily accessible to the concerned parties, so that it may be retrieved at any point of time when it’s required. And so, AI technology can be effectively applied to prepare repositories of data. It can be systematically stored in your systems and retrieved as and when required.

3. “EVENTUALLY, EVERYTHING CONNECTS…” AND AI CAN HELP YOU RECOGNIZE THESE PATTERNS!

“Eventually, everything connects…” is a statement by Charles Eames. And as an investigator, it is important to recognize these intricate connections. This helps one to connect two and two together and complete the whole picture. However, a lot of times, patterns can be very specific and complex and thus difficult to keep track of. This is why investigators often take the help of modern technology to recognize such patterns. AI technology can help with patterns such as identifying different elements of one image; detecting patterns in emails and messages; and matching new information with different types of existing data in the system databases. It can also help with matching suspect information with the existing criminal records and intimating investigators of any previous criminal activity that the concerned suspect may have been involved in.

4. “BUT…WHERE’S THE EVIDENCE?” ASKED EVERY INVESTIGATOR EVER.

Yes, we’re talking evidence – the most crucial aspect of every criminal investigation. Without sufficient evidence, every hypothesis and argument may be rightly negated, however relevant or evident it may intuitively appear. And AI technology can contribute significantly to the investigator’s constant quest for evidence. For example, it can produce case stories and graphics of hypothetical scenarios which can help investigators analyze the given premise in the right direction. Moreover, the various statistical tools offered by AI help to formulate logical evidences that aid successful investigations of criminal cases.

5. IT’S NOT JUST ABOUT GATHERING AND STORING DATA…AI CAN BE QUITE AN ANALYST, TOO!

We know that non-AI computational techniques also exist in analyzing information. However, these methods may often not cater to large volumes of data. And that’s where AI technology steps in. Artificial Intelligence can help investigators analyze large chunks of data by applying statistical and probability-based principles. Here’s where data mining comes in handy. This process involves the discovery of patterns in data with the help of machine learning and statistical tools. Data mining can be of considerable assistance to the crime branch.

So there! That was our list of contributions that AI can make to the field of forensic science and criminal investigation. Criminology and forensics is not only about applying various techniques and analyzing evidences to reach logical inferences – it also involves intuition, keen observation skills and sensitivity. And technology is a poor substitute when it comes to these typically human qualities. So, as long as criminal investigation exists, humans will be extensively required in this challenging field. Let us leave you with a quote from “The Boscombe Valley Mystery”, a story from the renowned Sherlock Holmes collection:

“There is nothing more deceptive than an obvious fact.”

SOURCES:

  1. News-Medical
  2. SAS-Space

AI IN EDUCATION: 5 Reasons Why Artificial Intelligence is the Way to Go in Education

Think of the days you were in school – a phase of learning, playing and growing that remains etched in our minds for the rest of our lives. While one often completes his/her formal education during one’s youth, can we so rigidly restrict learning and education based on one’s chronological age?
Pause your reading for a moment and look around you. Chances are you learnt something new even within this one moment of reflection! Learning is always a continuous process and education certainly extends beyond the four walls of one’s school and university. And as the world progresses and develops, it is also extremely crucial for each of us to update ourselves in accordance with the ongoing changes. This is where Artificial Intelligence steps in. As the world is increasingly transitioning into a global village, why not let AI contribute in its big little way to globalizing education and introducing innovative learning tools?
We’re back with a blog; and today, it’s time to take a look at the integral role of AI in the education sector:

1. ‘CAUSE TEACHERS ALSO NEED ASSISTANCE IN ASSESSMENTS…

A substantial amount of time is invested by teachers every semester on correcting exam papers and assigning grades. This monotonous and hectic task increases their workload. It also leaves very less time for other primary activities such as lesson planning and thinking of innovative teaching strategies. Enter AI! Yes, there may be certain limitations to the domains AI can cover to assist grading. However, grading tools including Gradoscope are now being adapted in order to help tutors and instructors with grading exams and even homework on the AI platform. Moreover, it also ensures that students receive their results faster and with increased accuracy. Gradecam is another platform that can be used by students to simply write down answers to multiple-choice questions. Following this, the technology compares the student’s answer to the correct one provided in the answer key and assigns grades accordingly.

2. THE ADMISSION PROCEDURE IS AS TIME-CONSUMING AS IT’S CRUCIAL!

Every academic year, the admission procedures are nothing short of an elaborate ceremony for schools and universities across the globe. Whether it is enrolling new students on board or promoting existing students to higher grades, the process is definitely time-consuming and often repetitive. With AI, bots can easily carry out tabulation of admission data such as student details and grades. This frees the non-teaching staff of schools and universities from engaging in monotonous processes.

3. SMART LESSONS ON SMARTPHONES – FOR SMART LEARNING!

Smart is the new cool today, whether it’s phones or learning techniques. While hard-work and determination are still extremely relevant and important virtues, working smart is also a significant attribute. And that’s where AI contributes to ensure a smart learning environment for all learners!
Traditional classrooms often tend to uphold the notion that all pupils belonging to a certain grade or level possess more or less the same grasping and comprehension levels. However, every individual is a different entity, independent of his/her educational level. And education, as a powerful medium of imparting knowledge and learning, must realize this fact.
With AI-powered educational apps, it is possible for tutors to look beyond the mid-point of the ‘normal distribution curve’ and instead offer customized recommendation to each student. Tutors can also consider learning preferences of individual students. Based on this, they can adapt to varying techniques such as flashcards, audios etc. Such AI apps can also provide quick study and revision material and last minute exam prep notes to students at the click of a button!

4. NOW APPLY TECHNOLOGY TO IDENTIFY YOUR PUPIL’S GRASPING SPEED AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE…

More often than not, classrooms with large pupil strengths are unable to keep track of individual students’ performances. Some students in the classroom are quick learners who don’t require micro-management. Yet others may lag behind due to their slower processing speed and may require personalized attention. As a continuation to our previous point on smart lessons, AI can also contribute to assessing individual students’ learning speed and academic performance. Such micro-level understanding of each student’s academic status can help the tutor cater to individual pupils’ needs with ease.

5. e-LEARNING: YOUR ‘WINDOW’ TO THE WORLD!

Yeah, we already gave you a lengthy heads-up on how the ‘world is becoming a global village’ and so on. And in such a scenario, can the education sector stay untouched by the modernization? Certainly not! With e-learning platforms offering innovative and engaging learning techniques for learners across the globe, the world is not only a global village, but a global classroom consisting of towns, cities and villages and connecting students and teachers. We all know the buzz that platforms like Udemy and Coursera have rightly generated. There are also a number of other platforms under the hood of Learning Management System, which focus on interactive and innovative learning between learners and tutors, as well as between individual learners.

This was our list of top 5 benefits AI can bring about in the education sector. But education is not always about academics – the infrastructure in educational campuses also plays a very important role in effective learning. AI can also help with planning of expenditures during extra-curricular events. Deep learning technologies can be applied to make data-driven predictions pertaining to seating arrangements, food orders etc. This can help to reduce costs significantly. So, is AI the genie all set to take over the education industry? More importantly, will it replace humans? The answer is a ‘no’. Rather, AI only provides a platform that efficiently facilitates more human interactions. So, as long as education exists as a medium of learning, human interactions can never go out of fashion.

SOURCES
1. TeachThought
2. Forbes
3. elearning Industry

AI IN CYBER-SECURITY: Is Artificial Intelligence the ‘Key’ to a Safe Digital World?

The next time you step out of your safe havens of work or home, take a look at the uniformed personnel standing at the gates, perhaps greeting you with a wave or salute as you enter or exit the place. How important is security in our day-to-day life? Would you be reveling in your comfortable space if not for the guards outside protecting it day in and day out?

Now, the next time you switch on your laptop or computer, make a note of the number of times you had to enter passwords and/or apply bio-metrics – right from unlocking your device to opening your email account and signing into Facebook and LinkedIn. Would you rest assured if not for these passwords and other bio-metric techniques to ensure online safety? That’s why security isn’t just an offline thing – we also need guards to protect the online world and prevent cyber crime. The recent cyber-attacks on Wipro further suggests that cyber-security is the need of the hour.

While human intelligence functions at different levels – from security persons to the police force and CBI – to ensure offline safety and security, our very own Artificial Intelligence can serve as an extremely reliable means to safeguard the world on the other side of the screen. We’re back with a blog; and today, it’s time to look at the integral role of AI in cyber-security:

1. DATA DATA EVERYWHERE, BUT HOW MUCH OF IT IS SECURE?

Wherever there’s gathering of information and research involved, there’s always a threat of data accumulation. And wading through such massive amounts of data can be painfully time-consuming. Added to this is the extra effort exerted while storing and retrieving the already gathered data. All of these aspects associated with data handling make it a herculean task. In such a scenario, if employees have to also manually ensure that there is no security breach or malicious data in the database, it becomes doubly tedious and error-prone. And so, AI systems can help to scan through the data and successfully detect any security issues in the same.

2. ‘CAUSE FINGERPRINTS DON’T LIE!

Passwords can be cracked and systems hacked, but can one’s fingerprints and retina be manipulated? Certainly not. And that’s why we find the bio-metrical systems cool! The world today boasts of unprecedented technical advancement. Consequently, safety and security is the need of the hour at every level.

While strong passwords can be good gatekeepers, hackers often manage to find foolproof techniques to break into password-protected systems. With AI and bio-metrics, technology has been customized to include fingerprint and palm-print detectors and retina scanners. AI technology can scan and store the rightful user’s fingerprints, thumb-prints, retina etc. in the system’s database. Then, each time a person seeks access to the software, a fingerprint, palm-print or eye scan is carried out and the current user’s bio-metrics is compared with those of the rightful user. It is only when the two elements match that the user is granted access to the system. Quite an idea, isn’t it?

3. “UNUSUAL LOG IN ACTIVITY! WAS THAT YOU?”

When was the last time you logged into your email ID from a different device and received this alert mail? In all probability, this may have occurred not very long ago with each of us. And as long as it is the rightful user who has logged in from a different device, these alert mails may be safely ignored or deleted. However, the nightmarish situation actually arises when you discover that it is indeed a different user from an alien device who has logged in to your ID! And that’s where AI comes to your immediate rescue. With the AI technology, one can receive immediate alerts regarding any unusual log in activities, and then work on instant recovery.

 4. IS YOUR PRIMARY INBOX DEVOID OF SPAM? YOU NEED TO THANK AI FOR IT…

Spam emails containing viruses and other malicious content are the primary means for hackers to hijack email accounts and devices. Often, it becomes extremely difficult for users to identify spam mails, as these often contain sophisticated subject lines and seemingly genuine addresses. But AI can help to detect and segregate these spam emails with ease. It can ensure that the it doesn’t classify the really genuine ones into the purview of suspicion.

5. A MUCH-NEEDED BREATHER FOR CYBER-SECURITY PROFESSIONALS!

There’s definitely a big bad world out there even on the other side of the screen, and the demand for cyber-security professionals is higher than ever before. Plotting effective strategies to prevent cyber-attacks and providing recovery solutions to counter those that have already taken place is definitely not a piece of cake, and not only requires a sound understanding of coding and back-end software processes, but also extreme vigilance. But monotonous tasks like manually segregating malicious data from the secure ones can bog down the cyber professionals. Artificial Intelligence can help to provide them with a much-needed breather, which allows them to carry out more productive activities instead of limiting themselves to repetitive ones.

Artificial Intelligence is certainly not the be-all end-all of cyber-security. Despite ensuring high security to the best extent, software systems are still not beyond the reach of cyber crime. And so, it’s important for AI to work in tandem with humans to ensure a safer and more secure online world.

SOURCES:

  1. First Post
  2. Paladion
  3. Forbes

HERE ARE 6 BENEFITS OF RPA AND AI IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY!

“True hospitality consists of giving the best of yourself to your guests,” said Eleanor Roosevelt.

Travelling and exploring new cultures and cuisines certainly unfolds an exciting world before us. With massive diversity in this planet , there’s plenty of room for discovering the world around us. However, while exploring new places and cultures, have we thought about the efforts involved in creating a world conducive to our adventures? The hospitality industry leaves no stone unturned to ensure that this process of exploration is made comfortable for every tourist. From accommodation and transportation to food and luxury facilities, the hospitality industry works around the clock to ensure we make good memories.

In such situations, it often becomes tedious for humans to be everywhere. And that’s where AI steps in! We’re back with a blog; and today, it’s time to consider some ways in which AI can work wonders in the hotel and hospitality sector. Before we go, check out our previous blog on RPA in travel if you haven’t yet!

1. NEW GUESTS? ALLOW AUTOMATION TO LAY THE RED CARPET…

Welcoming new guests and ensuring their comfortable stay is every hotel’s responsibility. However, the more luxurious the hotel, the more the number of clients; and more the efforts exerted by the staff. That’s where automation and AI step in to make life more efficient. With guestroom automation, hotel rooms can now be automated to adjust temperature in accordance with the ‘occupied’ or ‘vacant’ status of a room. Moreover, with the Guest Automation System being applied in leading five-star hotels today, guests can operate all electrical appliances (including the A.C., fan and lights) using the ‘master switch’. The Shangri-La hotel in UAE famously applies guestroom automation in providing day-to-day hospitality services to its guests.

2. ENTER, GUESTS! SO…ENTER MORE DATA?

The entry and exit of your guests translates into a lot of data entry. And this task induces monotony for the hotel staff. The good news is that this data entry task is very much ‘automable’! With automation, all your data pertaining to the occupancy status of the rooms as well as crucial information to promote sustainable living – such as data on energy saving and staff responses to guest calls – can now be taken care of.

3. BECAUSE THE ENVIRONMENT HOSTS US EVERYDAY…

Just like a hotel hosts its guests on a daily basis, the environment around us also hosts us every single day, providing the necessary resources and space. And so, it follows that we, as a society, owe it back to nature. A report by Energy Star states that 47,000 hotels across America incur an annual expenditure of $2,196 per available room, which amounts to 6% of all operating costs.

This alarming statistic is reason enough for the hotel industry to begin to consider environment-friendly alternatives on priority. AI is here to help you out in your journey towards a sustainable living. It does so by enabling all electrical appliances in a room to be automatically switched off when the occupancy status of the room changes to ‘vacant’. What’s more, the electricity automatically switches to standby mode when the guest is not in the room, but still somewhere in the vicinity (for e.g. at the balcony).

4. KNOCK, KNOCK! CHAT-BOT SERVICE…

Like in many other domains, chat-bots and virtual assistants are very important in the hospitality industry, too. They are available to your guests 24/7, answering questions and providing assistance. These allow for more efficient customer service, preventing any delays in attending to your guests while also providing a much-needed respite to the hotel staff.

5. NOW, YOUR MOBILE PHONE IS LITERALLY THE ‘KEY’…

No, the word ‘key’ isn’t just a metaphor. With the digital transformation attaining unimaginable heights, your phone can literally act as the key to your hotel-room! Now, some five-star hotels have enabled digital check-in for their guests. Here, the guests can check into their hotel rooms using the hotel app instead of queuing up at the reception to collect the room keys. This is not only a major time-saver for the guests, but also allows the hotel staff to engage in more productive tasks within hospitality.

6. “HOW DID WE FARE?” NOW, YOUR HOTEL GUESTS CAN FEEL FREE TO SHARE…

Guest reviews are very important sources of constructive feedback for any hotel; however, it often happens that this feedback is not very comprehensive due to lack of time on part of the guest. Moreover, hotels are often apprehensive to directly approach guests for their feedback. Automating the guest review process ensures that guests who have recently checked out of the hotel receive custom emails requesting their feedback. This allows guests to fill up the feedback forms in a relaxed manner while also increasing the possibility of a more in-depth feedback.

CONCLUSION

While digitization is the way to go for any hotel to increase its efficiency, it cannot replace the personal touch provided by human staff. The key to successful automation in this industry is to identify the processes that are indeed monotonous and to automate them in order to increase overall efficiency and promote employee growth.

SOURCES:

1. HospitalityTech
2. Revfine
3. Energy Star
4. Pacific Controls

DELVING ‘DEEPER’ INTO AI: Key Differences between Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning

KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, MACHINE LEARNING AND DEEP LEARNING

The human race has been constantly challenging the notion of “impossible” for centuries and epochs on end. With unbelievable inventions and discoveries and out-of-the-box ideas to overcome constraints at every level, we have emerged as a supreme species and carved an almost invincible niche for ourselves in the planet. And our successor-of-sorts is Artificial Intelligence.
Efficient delegation of tasks has also been one of our strengths – and over the past few years, we have taken this quality of ours to another level by not only delegating tasks efficiently, but also manufacturing loyal entities to carry these out with minimal errors and maximum output. Artificial Intelligence is indeed an almost magical invention by our race.
While Artificial Intelligence is being used by individuals and groups across the globe, there is an acute lack of awareness amongst many users about the precise difference between a machine being overtly instructed to perform a particular task, and technology being made independent to carry out these tasks without any human assistance. We’re back with a blog; and today, we’re going to discuss Artificial Intelligence at the macro as well as micro levels – with its two major offshoots: Machine Learning and Deep Learning.

1.Meet Artificial Intelligence. Again. In All Its Glory.
While artificial intelligence is, more often than not, an integral part of the modern world at various levels, it is often taken for granted in the sense that one rarely stops to ponder about the mechanisms involved in the working of AI. And when you open the door to the processes involved in AI, you unearth a Pandora’s box.
Artificial Intelligence is a one-stop term for referring to the ability of machines to observe and understand certain rule-based tasks typically performed by humans, and then emulate these tasks in order to relieve humans of monotony, and pave the way for us to perform more intellectually stimulating tasks. Self-driving cars; video games; the names of your friends that your keyboard-prediction completes for you; your conversations with Siri and Alexa; and Amazon’s suggestions for you based on your previous online shopping spree – it’s time to thank AI for all of these supercool phenomena.
But…wait. Is a human secretly helping Siri follow my instructions every single time?
Have you ever wondered with amazement at how (at least most of the times) Siri is not only able to follow your instructions efficiently, but also converse with you spontaneously when you inquire about its personal life and well-being? And also come up with different, dynamic, even witty responses every single time?
Obviously, the development of virtual assistants like Siri, Google Assistant and Alexa would be quite futile if humans were expected to function behind the scenes every single time, instructing these assistants to provide satisfactory answers to the users.

2.Enter, machine learning.
“The greatest sign of success for a teacher…is to be able to say, ‘The children are now working as if I did not exist,’” says Maria Montessori. And Machine Learning can be conceptualized as technology’s teacher. Machine Learning uses the mechanisms of AI, but goes a step further; and ‘empowers’ technological equipment by making your machines not only intelligent, but also independent.
ML involves enabling our technological equipment to not only work efficiently on its own, but also to constantly adapt itself to any new information or experience over time. If your device is able to suggest those cool Versace leather-jackets for you based on your previous overcoat purchases on Amazon, you need to thank Machine Learning for it!

3.But hang on. Your machines are capable of EVEN ‘deeper’ stuff!
Try to think of the first time you, as a toddler, learnt to label a chair as ‘chair’. Now try and recollect the various other chairs you may have been accustomed to ever since. Were all these chairs identical to the one you had first labelled as a child? Most likely, not at all. But did you manage to still find a broad similarity between all these chairs, and label all of them under the umbrella-term of ‘chair’? That’s exactly what deep learning teaches machines to do.
While ML teaches technology to perform AI-based tasks independently, DL goes even beyond the ‘independence’ phase, and teaches your machines to also be smart enough to carry out abstract connections, and form prototypical conceptualizations. It consists of certain algorithms that process and store every relevant input, based on which they come up with a statistical model, which becomes the prototypical output. This process continues until a precise prototypical image of the output has been obtained. In our day-to-day lives, Deep Learning is able to predict and process extensive data online, and typically provide accurate solutions to the same. If ML enables online retail websites to suggest a certain brand of clothes based on your previous shopping records, DL takes online shopping to another level. If you have been repeatedly purchasing products whose target audience is women, DL not only provides you suggestions based on that classy pair of heels you bought the last time, but also some trending tops and accessories based on its prediction of your gender-identity. That’s the brilliance of Deep Learning in AI.
And so, while AI is the broadest category that one can think of for machines being able to mimic humans in their mundane tasks, AI is not complete in itself, without its subsets of Machine Learning and Deep Learning. And together, AI, ML and DL constantly work in tandem in order to make our lives a little more efficient and productive, every single day.

AI IN PHARMA: The Role of Artificial Intelligence in the Pharmaceutical Industry

“Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there is also a love for humanity,” says Hippocrates.

Through centuries of dedication and extensive research, the medical industry has managed to come up with remedies to innumerable ailments and diseases, and has found cures for illnesses that used to be relegated as incurable and deadly. And the pharmaceutical sector performs an indispensable role in the world of medicine. From diagnosis and testing, to prescription and treatment, the pharmaceutical industry works around the clock in order to ensure optimal health and well-being. Having said that, the various processes involved in pharmaceutical interventions are extremely intensive and cumbersome, and a number of these can afford simplification to a great extent. Enter AI.
Artificial Intelligence is no less than modern-day Frankenstein’s monster, in that it is human’s magical creation that can perform all those tasks which humans are either incapable of carrying out, or end up investing too much time and effort in. Today, from chat-bots at our disposal to self-driving cars, the world is approaching an AI renaissance of sorts. In such a scenario, can such an integral domain as pharmaceutics stay far behind? We are back with a blog, and this time, we shall disclose to you the key areas in pharmaceuticals where AI is being put to use, as well as those sub-fields where AI has tremendous scope:

1.SAY GOODBYE TO ELABORATE TESTING LABS!
Testing and diagnosis forms a crucial part of the intervention process, in that it provides the doctor and the patient with a definite direction in the tumultuous journey of treatment and cure. The usual testing and diagnosis process consists of examining, in a laboratory, the collected samples of the patient, and detecting any abnormalities or irregular patterns in the same. However, with the advent of Artificial Intelligence, it is now possible to use a compressed version of lab testing, with the help of easy-to-use diagnostic kits. In fact, a report published by AIMEDIS suggests that in April 2018, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved to commercialize the first AI machine to detect diabetes retinopathy, a major eye disease. AI is almost like your Superman of the pharma world – a magical savior.

2.‘CLOUD NINE’ AIN’T FAR AWAY!
Need personalized medical treatment and solutions? AI has the perfect solution for you. AI now consists of a cloud-system called IBM Watson that can store large amounts of patient data. Then, with the help of this vast repertoire of information, IBM Watson can come up with tailor-made solutions for each patient based on individual symptoms and requirements. Heard of “an apple a day keeps the doctor away”? How about we replace ‘apple’ with ‘AI’?

3.AND NOW, DR. ROBOT WILL PERFORM YOUR SURGERY…
Unless programmed in a faulty manner, robots cannot falter in their deeds. What if a perfectly designed robot performs surgery on a patient? There’s no escaping the fact that while doctors are no less than demigods to us, they are just as human as any of us, and they deserve their own breaks and rest.
With AI and unbelievable advancement in robotic technology, robots can now be programmed to perform assisted surgery, which not only ensures absolute precision and better control of surgical instruments, but also provides surgeons with intermittent breaks during the course of the surgery. Moreover, with the help of Verb Surgical, a Johnson and Johnson initiative in collaboration with Google, it is now possible for surgeons to manage, with remarkable efficiency, the paraphernalia of surgery, including pre-surgery planning and preparation and post-surgery analysis and care.

4.CANCER IS CURABLE. AND AI’S CONTRIBUTION TO CANCER TREATMENT IS DURABLE!
AI is now being widely used in the various processes of cancer treatment, including diagnosis, treatment and radiation. The faculty of medicine at the Toronto University has come up with a unique software that utilizes the data obtained through radiation therapy, in order to come up with customized treatment plans for the patients. In addition, IBM Watson is also being used in order to develop cancer treatment plans. While clinicians are still majorly involved in the entire radiation process, AI is predicted to soon reduce the segmentation process duration from 4-5 hours to around an hour.
In addition, Genetech, a member of the Roche group (which is a research-based healthcare giant), in collaboration with GNS healthcare, has come up with a machine learning technology dedicated to cancer treatment. This software processes large amounts of information on cancer patients, and converts these to computer models that can be used to come up with new cancer interventions.

The sub-fields of pharmacy and medicine listed above are just the tips of the iceberg. Artificial Intelligence is predicted to bring about substantial changes in various stages and phases of cancer diagnosis, treatment and cure. However, while AI and robotics can provide patients and doctors with personalized solutions, and bring about efficiency in the process, any journey of medical intervention requires emotions and empathy alongside intelligence. And that’s precisely why one cannot do away with humans in a profession as sensitive as medicine and pharmacy. Perhaps, if the right balance between AI sensibility and human sensitivity is attained, it is possible to achieve unparalleled heights in the domain of healthcare and medicine.

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