4 TYPES OF AI YOU TOTALLY NEED TO KNOW ABOUT!

The next time you ask Siri to set a reminder or Cortana to assist you with checking your mails, pause and think about this. Both Siri and Cortana are mere software systems created by human-beings like you and me. Yet, they can not only understand and assist you in your tasks, but also promptly change the flow of their conversations based on your commands! Over the years, we have successfully managed to create applications that can not only satisfy the user’s immediate demands, but also display innate emotional intelligence and the ability to independently adapt themselves to new situations and information.
We’ve already discussed the key differences between Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning. But can Artificial Intelligence by itself consist of further bifurcations? We’re back with a blog; and today, let’s have a look at the further classifications of AI:

1. REACTIVE MACHINES: LIVING. IN. THE. PRESENT. MOMENT.

Living in the present is definitely a positive attribute. But does that mean one forgets every event or action that occurred in the past? Well, reactive technology functions somewhat like that. Yes, these machines can adapt to the situations at hand and react accordingly. However, they do not have the ability to learn from previous experiences, let alone apply such knowledge to the present.
An interesting example of a reactive AI machine is Google’s AlphaGo. This game is the online version of the popular board-game Go, and it applies a neural network system to evaluate each player’s move. This game has managed to defeat Go experts by reacting to their moves with its ‘intellect’. But it cannot predict further moves of the player by his/her previous actions, or based on general inferences drawn from the various games played earlier. Another very popular instance of reactive machines is Deep Blue, the supercomputer by IBM that is an expert at chess.

2. LIMITED MEMORY: ‘CAUSE SHORT-TERM MEMORY ALSO GOES A LONG WAY SOMETIMES!

And then there’s another category of AI machines – limited memory. As the name suggests, these machines do have memory, but it’s rather limited. They can base their actions on immediate previous learning, but cannot store learned information to utilize in future. For instance, self-driving vehicles have the ability to read sign-posts, traffic signals etc. and navigate accordingly. They can also convey their decisions to change lanes and follow traffic rules. However, these machines do not have a ‘long-term’ memory and function merely on the basis of their perceptions of very recent instances.

3. IT’S ALL IN THE MIND – THE THEORY OF MIND IN AI

Undoubtedly, the human mind still reigns supreme over all advancements in science and technology. And rightly so, because the human brain is the ultimate source of all inventions and discoveries we so heavily rely on. But…what if we manage to produce technology that can recognize human emotions and predict behavior? While we still have a long way to go in terms of manufacturing such ‘sensitive’ machines, we are definitely on the way. The sentiment analyzer, for instance, is an important feature in chatbots and virtual assistants. With this feature, it is possible for these software systems to recognize the user’s emotional state by his/her tone of speech, and react accordingly. This stage in AI transcends the popular definitions of ‘machine’, thus bringing it (somewhat eerily) closer to human perceptions and behavior.

4. SELF-AWARENESS: WHAT IF TECHNOLOGY INDULGES IN SELF-REFLECTION?

Think about it: What if technology begins to think for itself? Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is an early description of the chaos that may take place if technology begins to dominate over its own creators. At this stage, technology dons the cloak of consciousness, realizing not only that another being is acting a certain way, but also analyzing the reason behind this behavior. It’s not only about what one does, but also the whys and the hows of the same. And yes, you guessed right. Mankind hasn’t been able to device such types of technology yet. But…never say never, right?

CONCLUSION

So that was all about the 4 major types of AI technology. While the last 2 types of Artificial Intelligence have not yet been actively initiated on a large scale, technology is rapidly advancing to meet the ever-rising (and never-ending!) human needs. AI technology is definitely taking the world to places – but as always, we know one thing for sure: a proper balance between the two types of intelligence is the sure fire way to go!

OUR OTHER BLOGS ON AI:

1. AI versus Human Intelligence: The Basic Differences
2. AI in Cybersecurity
3. AI in Education

REFERENCES

1. Zeolearn
2. GovTech
3. Analytics Training

AI IN FORENSIC SCIENCE: 5 Ways in Which AI is a Success in Criminal Investigation

Fingerprints and evidences. Crimes and investigations. Magnifying glasses and test reports. Detectives and forensic experts. Sidney Sheldon and Goodfellas and Catch Me If You Can…you get the point. We’re definitely referring to crime thrillers and all the paraphernalia we can associate this genre with.

Think about the last time you heard or read about a criminal investigation being carried out. Was it only the cops or the CBI or any such equivalent investigation body typically dealing with the entire case? While it is often people from these domains who ostensibly handle such investigations, another very prominent branch is the forensic department. Whether it’s matching fingerprints, conducting postmortem or producing forensic reports, this department does it all. With rapid technical advancement in all the fields, particularly in the domain of investigation and forensic science, Artificial Intelligence has successfully made its grand entry into this domain as well! How is AI being implemented in the field of forensic science?
Last time, we spoke to you about the role of RPA in law. Well, we’re back with a blog; and today, let’s have a look at the role of AI in forensics:

1.  INVESTIGATION IS FUN, BUT CAN WE SAY THE SAME ABOUT CONSOLIDATING DATA?

Forensic investigation involves extensive research collecting of evidence from different sources and then consolidating the same in order to arrive at logical conclusions. While the process of vigilantly deriving such data from ‘mysterious’ sources can certainly be a productive and interesting job, handling large chunks of data can often be confusing and chaotic. AI can help forensic experts with handling data effectively and performing meta-analysis at various levels during the investigation. This can save a considerable amount of time and also ensure that forensic investigators have enough time and inclination to work on other important tasks!

2. OKAY…BUT WILL AI ALSO ENSURE THAT ALL THIS DATA IS ACCESSIBLE? YES!

AI understands that it’s not sufficient to merely collect and analyse information. The collected data must also be easily accessible to the concerned parties, so that it may be retrieved at any point of time when it’s required. And so, AI technology can be effectively applied to prepare repositories of data. It can be systematically stored in your systems and retrieved as and when required.

3. “EVENTUALLY, EVERYTHING CONNECTS…” AND AI CAN HELP YOU RECOGNIZE THESE PATTERNS!

“Eventually, everything connects…” is a statement by Charles Eames. And as an investigator, it is important to recognize these intricate connections. This helps one to connect two and two together and complete the whole picture. However, a lot of times, patterns can be very specific and complex and thus difficult to keep track of. This is why investigators often take the help of modern technology to recognize such patterns. AI technology can help with patterns such as identifying different elements of one image; detecting patterns in emails and messages; and matching new information with different types of existing data in the system databases. It can also help with matching suspect information with the existing criminal records and intimating investigators of any previous criminal activity that the concerned suspect may have been involved in.

4. “BUT…WHERE’S THE EVIDENCE?” ASKED EVERY INVESTIGATOR EVER.

Yes, we’re talking evidence – the most crucial aspect of every criminal investigation. Without sufficient evidence, every hypothesis and argument may be rightly negated, however relevant or evident it may intuitively appear. And AI technology can contribute significantly to the investigator’s constant quest for evidence. For example, it can produce case stories and graphics of hypothetical scenarios which can help investigators analyze the given premise in the right direction. Moreover, the various statistical tools offered by AI help to formulate logical evidences that aid successful investigations of criminal cases.

5. IT’S NOT JUST ABOUT GATHERING AND STORING DATA…AI CAN BE QUITE AN ANALYST, TOO!

We know that non-AI computational techniques also exist in analyzing information. However, these methods may often not cater to large volumes of data. And that’s where AI technology steps in. Artificial Intelligence can help investigators analyze large chunks of data by applying statistical and probability-based principles. Here’s where data mining comes in handy. This process involves the discovery of patterns in data with the help of machine learning and statistical tools. Data mining can be of considerable assistance to the crime branch.

So there! That was our list of contributions that AI can make to the field of forensic science and criminal investigation. Criminology and forensics is not only about applying various techniques and analyzing evidences to reach logical inferences – it also involves intuition, keen observation skills and sensitivity. And technology is a poor substitute when it comes to these typically human qualities. So, as long as criminal investigation exists, humans will be extensively required in this challenging field. Let us leave you with a quote from “The Boscombe Valley Mystery”, a story from the renowned Sherlock Holmes collection:

“There is nothing more deceptive than an obvious fact.”

SOURCES:

  1. News-Medical
  2. SAS-Space

AI IN EDUCATION: 5 Reasons Why Artificial Intelligence is the Way to Go in Education

Think of the days you were in school – a phase of learning, playing and growing that remains etched in our minds for the rest of our lives. While one often completes his/her formal education during one’s youth, can we so rigidly restrict learning and education based on one’s chronological age?
Pause your reading for a moment and look around you. Chances are you learnt something new even within this one moment of reflection! Learning is always a continuous process and education certainly extends beyond the four walls of one’s school and university. And as the world progresses and develops, it is also extremely crucial for each of us to update ourselves in accordance with the ongoing changes. This is where Artificial Intelligence steps in. As the world is increasingly transitioning into a global village, why not let AI contribute in its big little way to globalizing education and introducing innovative learning tools?
We’re back with a blog; and today, it’s time to take a look at the integral role of AI in the education sector:

1. ‘CAUSE TEACHERS ALSO NEED ASSISTANCE IN ASSESSMENTS…

A substantial amount of time is invested by teachers every semester on correcting exam papers and assigning grades. This monotonous and hectic task increases their workload. It also leaves very less time for other primary activities such as lesson planning and thinking of innovative teaching strategies. Enter AI! Yes, there may be certain limitations to the domains AI can cover to assist grading. However, grading tools including Gradoscope are now being adapted in order to help tutors and instructors with grading exams and even homework on the AI platform. Moreover, it also ensures that students receive their results faster and with increased accuracy. Gradecam is another platform that can be used by students to simply write down answers to multiple-choice questions. Following this, the technology compares the student’s answer to the correct one provided in the answer key and assigns grades accordingly.

2. THE ADMISSION PROCEDURE IS AS TIME-CONSUMING AS IT’S CRUCIAL!

Every academic year, the admission procedures are nothing short of an elaborate ceremony for schools and universities across the globe. Whether it is enrolling new students on board or promoting existing students to higher grades, the process is definitely time-consuming and often repetitive. With AI, bots can easily carry out tabulation of admission data such as student details and grades. This frees the non-teaching staff of schools and universities from engaging in monotonous processes.

3. SMART LESSONS ON SMARTPHONES – FOR SMART LEARNING!

Smart is the new cool today, whether it’s phones or learning techniques. While hard-work and determination are still extremely relevant and important virtues, working smart is also a significant attribute. And that’s where AI contributes to ensure a smart learning environment for all learners!
Traditional classrooms often tend to uphold the notion that all pupils belonging to a certain grade or level possess more or less the same grasping and comprehension levels. However, every individual is a different entity, independent of his/her educational level. And education, as a powerful medium of imparting knowledge and learning, must realize this fact.
With AI-powered educational apps, it is possible for tutors to look beyond the mid-point of the ‘normal distribution curve’ and instead offer customized recommendation to each student. Tutors can also consider learning preferences of individual students. Based on this, they can adapt to varying techniques such as flashcards, audios etc. Such AI apps can also provide quick study and revision material and last minute exam prep notes to students at the click of a button!

4. NOW APPLY TECHNOLOGY TO IDENTIFY YOUR PUPIL’S GRASPING SPEED AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE…

More often than not, classrooms with large pupil strengths are unable to keep track of individual students’ performances. Some students in the classroom are quick learners who don’t require micro-management. Yet others may lag behind due to their slower processing speed and may require personalized attention. As a continuation to our previous point on smart lessons, AI can also contribute to assessing individual students’ learning speed and academic performance. Such micro-level understanding of each student’s academic status can help the tutor cater to individual pupils’ needs with ease.

5. e-LEARNING: YOUR ‘WINDOW’ TO THE WORLD!

Yeah, we already gave you a lengthy heads-up on how the ‘world is becoming a global village’ and so on. And in such a scenario, can the education sector stay untouched by the modernization? Certainly not! With e-learning platforms offering innovative and engaging learning techniques for learners across the globe, the world is not only a global village, but a global classroom consisting of towns, cities and villages and connecting students and teachers. We all know the buzz that platforms like Udemy and Coursera have rightly generated. There are also a number of other platforms under the hood of Learning Management System, which focus on interactive and innovative learning between learners and tutors, as well as between individual learners.

This was our list of top 5 benefits AI can bring about in the education sector. But education is not always about academics – the infrastructure in educational campuses also plays a very important role in effective learning. AI can also help with planning of expenditures during extra-curricular events. Deep learning technologies can be applied to make data-driven predictions pertaining to seating arrangements, food orders etc. This can help to reduce costs significantly. So, is AI the genie all set to take over the education industry? More importantly, will it replace humans? The answer is a ‘no’. Rather, AI only provides a platform that efficiently facilitates more human interactions. So, as long as education exists as a medium of learning, human interactions can never go out of fashion.

SOURCES
1. TeachThought
2. Forbes
3. elearning Industry

AI IN CYBER-SECURITY: Is Artificial Intelligence the ‘Key’ to a Safe Digital World?

The next time you step out of your safe havens of work or home, take a look at the uniformed personnel standing at the gates, perhaps greeting you with a wave or salute as you enter or exit the place. How important is security in our day-to-day life? Would you be reveling in your comfortable space if not for the guards outside protecting it day in and day out?

Now, the next time you switch on your laptop or computer, make a note of the number of times you had to enter passwords and/or apply bio-metrics – right from unlocking your device to opening your email account and signing into Facebook and LinkedIn. Would you rest assured if not for these passwords and other bio-metric techniques to ensure online safety? That’s why security isn’t just an offline thing – we also need guards to protect the online world and prevent cyber crime. The recent cyber-attacks on Wipro further suggests that cyber-security is the need of the hour.

While human intelligence functions at different levels – from security persons to the police force and CBI – to ensure offline safety and security, our very own Artificial Intelligence can serve as an extremely reliable means to safeguard the world on the other side of the screen. We’re back with a blog; and today, it’s time to look at the integral role of AI in cyber-security:

1. DATA DATA EVERYWHERE, BUT HOW MUCH OF IT IS SECURE?

Wherever there’s gathering of information and research involved, there’s always a threat of data accumulation. And wading through such massive amounts of data can be painfully time-consuming. Added to this is the extra effort exerted while storing and retrieving the already gathered data. All of these aspects associated with data handling make it a herculean task. In such a scenario, if employees have to also manually ensure that there is no security breach or malicious data in the database, it becomes doubly tedious and error-prone. And so, AI systems can help to scan through the data and successfully detect any security issues in the same.

2. ‘CAUSE FINGERPRINTS DON’T LIE!

Passwords can be cracked and systems hacked, but can one’s fingerprints and retina be manipulated? Certainly not. And that’s why we find the bio-metrical systems cool! The world today boasts of unprecedented technical advancement. Consequently, safety and security is the need of the hour at every level.

While strong passwords can be good gatekeepers, hackers often manage to find foolproof techniques to break into password-protected systems. With AI and bio-metrics, technology has been customized to include fingerprint and palm-print detectors and retina scanners. AI technology can scan and store the rightful user’s fingerprints, thumb-prints, retina etc. in the system’s database. Then, each time a person seeks access to the software, a fingerprint, palm-print or eye scan is carried out and the current user’s bio-metrics is compared with those of the rightful user. It is only when the two elements match that the user is granted access to the system. Quite an idea, isn’t it?

3. “UNUSUAL LOG IN ACTIVITY! WAS THAT YOU?”

When was the last time you logged into your email ID from a different device and received this alert mail? In all probability, this may have occurred not very long ago with each of us. And as long as it is the rightful user who has logged in from a different device, these alert mails may be safely ignored or deleted. However, the nightmarish situation actually arises when you discover that it is indeed a different user from an alien device who has logged in to your ID! And that’s where AI comes to your immediate rescue. With the AI technology, one can receive immediate alerts regarding any unusual log in activities, and then work on instant recovery.

 4. IS YOUR PRIMARY INBOX DEVOID OF SPAM? YOU NEED TO THANK AI FOR IT…

Spam emails containing viruses and other malicious content are the primary means for hackers to hijack email accounts and devices. Often, it becomes extremely difficult for users to identify spam mails, as these often contain sophisticated subject lines and seemingly genuine addresses. But AI can help to detect and segregate these spam emails with ease. It can ensure that the it doesn’t classify the really genuine ones into the purview of suspicion.

5. A MUCH-NEEDED BREATHER FOR CYBER-SECURITY PROFESSIONALS!

There’s definitely a big bad world out there even on the other side of the screen, and the demand for cyber-security professionals is higher than ever before. Plotting effective strategies to prevent cyber-attacks and providing recovery solutions to counter those that have already taken place is definitely not a piece of cake, and not only requires a sound understanding of coding and back-end software processes, but also extreme vigilance. But monotonous tasks like manually segregating malicious data from the secure ones can bog down the cyber professionals. Artificial Intelligence can help to provide them with a much-needed breather, which allows them to carry out more productive activities instead of limiting themselves to repetitive ones.

Artificial Intelligence is certainly not the be-all end-all of cyber-security. Despite ensuring high security to the best extent, software systems are still not beyond the reach of cyber crime. And so, it’s important for AI to work in tandem with humans to ensure a safer and more secure online world.

SOURCES:

  1. First Post
  2. Paladion
  3. Forbes

HERE ARE 6 BENEFITS OF RPA AND AI IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY!

“True hospitality consists of giving the best of yourself to your guests,” said Eleanor Roosevelt.

Travelling and exploring new cultures and cuisines certainly unfolds an exciting world before us. With massive diversity in this planet , there’s plenty of room for discovering the world around us. However, while exploring new places and cultures, have we thought about the efforts involved in creating a world conducive to our adventures? The hospitality industry leaves no stone unturned to ensure that this process of exploration is made comfortable for every tourist. From accommodation and transportation to food and luxury facilities, the hospitality industry works around the clock to ensure we make good memories.

In such situations, it often becomes tedious for humans to be everywhere. And that’s where AI steps in! We’re back with a blog; and today, it’s time to consider some ways in which AI can work wonders in the hotel and hospitality sector. Before we go, check out our previous blog on RPA in travel if you haven’t yet!

1. NEW GUESTS? ALLOW AUTOMATION TO LAY THE RED CARPET…

Welcoming new guests and ensuring their comfortable stay is every hotel’s responsibility. However, the more luxurious the hotel, the more the number of clients; and more the efforts exerted by the staff. That’s where automation and AI step in to make life more efficient. With guestroom automation, hotel rooms can now be automated to adjust temperature in accordance with the ‘occupied’ or ‘vacant’ status of a room. Moreover, with the Guest Automation System being applied in leading five-star hotels today, guests can operate all electrical appliances (including the A.C., fan and lights) using the ‘master switch’. The Shangri-La hotel in UAE famously applies guestroom automation in providing day-to-day hospitality services to its guests.

2. ENTER, GUESTS! SO…ENTER MORE DATA?

The entry and exit of your guests translates into a lot of data entry. And this task induces monotony for the hotel staff. The good news is that this data entry task is very much ‘automable’! With automation, all your data pertaining to the occupancy status of the rooms as well as crucial information to promote sustainable living – such as data on energy saving and staff responses to guest calls – can now be taken care of.

3. BECAUSE THE ENVIRONMENT HOSTS US EVERYDAY…

Just like a hotel hosts its guests on a daily basis, the environment around us also hosts us every single day, providing the necessary resources and space. And so, it follows that we, as a society, owe it back to nature. A report by Energy Star states that 47,000 hotels across America incur an annual expenditure of $2,196 per available room, which amounts to 6% of all operating costs.

This alarming statistic is reason enough for the hotel industry to begin to consider environment-friendly alternatives on priority. AI is here to help you out in your journey towards a sustainable living. It does so by enabling all electrical appliances in a room to be automatically switched off when the occupancy status of the room changes to ‘vacant’. What’s more, the electricity automatically switches to standby mode when the guest is not in the room, but still somewhere in the vicinity (for e.g. at the balcony).

4. KNOCK, KNOCK! CHAT-BOT SERVICE…

Like in many other domains, chat-bots and virtual assistants are very important in the hospitality industry, too. They are available to your guests 24/7, answering questions and providing assistance. These allow for more efficient customer service, preventing any delays in attending to your guests while also providing a much-needed respite to the hotel staff.

5. NOW, YOUR MOBILE PHONE IS LITERALLY THE ‘KEY’…

No, the word ‘key’ isn’t just a metaphor. With the digital transformation attaining unimaginable heights, your phone can literally act as the key to your hotel-room! Now, some five-star hotels have enabled digital check-in for their guests. Here, the guests can check into their hotel rooms using the hotel app instead of queuing up at the reception to collect the room keys. This is not only a major time-saver for the guests, but also allows the hotel staff to engage in more productive tasks within hospitality.

6. “HOW DID WE FARE?” NOW, YOUR HOTEL GUESTS CAN FEEL FREE TO SHARE…

Guest reviews are very important sources of constructive feedback for any hotel; however, it often happens that this feedback is not very comprehensive due to lack of time on part of the guest. Moreover, hotels are often apprehensive to directly approach guests for their feedback. Automating the guest review process ensures that guests who have recently checked out of the hotel receive custom emails requesting their feedback. This allows guests to fill up the feedback forms in a relaxed manner while also increasing the possibility of a more in-depth feedback.

CONCLUSION

While digitization is the way to go for any hotel to increase its efficiency, it cannot replace the personal touch provided by human staff. The key to successful automation in this industry is to identify the processes that are indeed monotonous and to automate them in order to increase overall efficiency and promote employee growth.

SOURCES:

1. HospitalityTech
2. Revfine
3. Energy Star
4. Pacific Controls

THE PROS AND CONS OF AI: A tightrope walk

With respect to Artificial Intelligence, the buzzword of the 21st Century, Dave Waters says:

“Artificial Intelligence is an infant at best. Once it becomes a teenager and believes it is smarter than its parents, will AI rebel?”

In today’s rapidly advancing world, the term ‘Artificial Intelligence’ is not uncommon to hear or read, in magazines and blog posts (such as those posted by XLNC!); at business meetings and on television. In our everyday lives, a lot of us apply AI technology to our mundane organizational as well as other personal tasks. However, a lot of individuals and groups are still very skeptical about this technology, and the idea of machines functioning autonomously.

While AI enthusiasts often sound gung-ho about the fields of Machine Learning and Automation – claiming these to make life more efficient and dynamic – a lot of others still struggle with getting over the apprehension that AI might take complete control of human life.
We’re back with a blog; and today, let’s evaluate AI’s benefits and drawbacks against the backdrop of the 21st Century world:

I.HEY! AI AIN’T ALL THAT BAD, AFTER ALL…

For those of you who are apprehensive and skeptical about embracing a technology as “frightening” and “overpowering” as AI, we’re here to break the ice between AI and you. Here we are, with the positive side of AI:

a.Artificial Intelligence does not recognize intellectual laziness

While human intelligence has managed to achieve leaps and bounds in various fields at different levels, it is always highly susceptible to spells of complacence and “intellectual laziness”. That’s where AI steps in. Siri, Alexa and Cortana do not tire of assisting you regardless of the time of day or night (check out our previous blog on chat-bots); and your personalized AI tutors will never tire of teaching you or helping you with teaching others. This is one of the reasons for Artificial Intelligence being promoted over manual task completion.

b.To err is human, so humans created Artificial Intelligence.

Einstein famously said, “A person who never made a mistake never tried anything new.

As living beings, mistakes have always been a simultaneous process alongside the successes. But Artificial Intelligence is definitely not a blunder (okay, hang on…we’re coming to the cons!). When programmed accurately, an AI technology is less likely to commit errors; and is usually flexible across different platforms.

c.‘Cause humans are so quick, they find themselves too slow…

Today, the world is now resorting to quickness in whatever it does – so much so, that the natural speed of humans is sometimes too slow for this world. And so, AI bridges the gap between the fast progressing world and the people residing in it. It provides faster and more efficient ways of reaching the desired ends. AI is being widely used in almost all sectors today, including healthcare, education, transportation and communication, and defense and military. It ensures speed and accuracy with minimal compromise on either.

d.Your AI is sensitive, but not emotional.

While chat-bots and GPS may be courteous and sensitive to your needs, they certainly do not possess deeper emotions and mood-swings; and you can rest assured that they will not complain of overwork and fatigue. And such a detached concern for the customers ensures that they can be reliable, diligent and caring, even when the work is strenuous and hectic.

II. AI AIN’T ALL THAT GOOD EITHER!

But, are we headed towards utopia? Is AI really so perfect that one can totally overlook possibilities of disadvantages? Most definitely not! Just like everything else on this earth, AI, too, has two sides. And a lot of people are skeptical about applying this technology for this reason. Come, let’s evaluate the various drawbacks of AI:

a.Yes, my processes will be more efficient, but at what ‘cost’?

Once we install and apply AI to our day-to-day lives, Artificial Intelligence can certainly be quite viable and cost effective. However, in the first place, it is important to install it to our already existing systems and ensure that it functions independently. And these processes are not exactly economical. Designing the specific tool of AI and then training the machine to operate without human intervention can be an expensive task, and one needs to be prepared to incur the expenditure in order to enjoy the results later.

b.Your AI is emotionally intelligent, but sometimes not intelligently emotional

Yes, AI may have been designed to understand human emotions and analyze sentiments. AI may also be able to carry out complex tasks that humans may never be able to undertake. However, there is a certain depth in perception and perspective that no machine has ever been able to touch, at least till now. And so, AI ventures can sometimes turn into not-so-pleasant adventures.

For example, in 2016, Microsoft’s Twitter chat-bot created havoc when it began abusing, and passing pro-Nazi comments such as “Hitler was right.” While this experimental chat-bot, Tay, was only imitating some humans who had been playing mischief, the situation was certainly alarming. Had the AI device been entirely controlled and mediated by a human, the situation may have probably been handled better.
We may consider AI as an innocent child whose active mind is a clean slate. It is the responsibility of humans to ensure it doesn’t waiver from the right path.

c.“Creativity is intelligence having fun.” Einstein meant this only for human intelligence.

AI apparently can’t have fun beyond a certain extent – intrinsic creativity does not figure anywhere here. That’s a faculty exclusive to humans – and processes sans human intervention can, well, only do so much to help matters.

d.While taking the help of machines, are we becoming machines ourselves?

This is one of the greatest concerns that the modern world is having to face. There is always a threat that AI can replace human intelligence in a big way; however, a lot of us don’t realize that as creators of AI, it is we who have the upper-hand over our creations. As users, one must realize that machines and technology are not meant for encouraging intellectual laziness and procrastination; but rather, for facilitating increased efficiency and application of one’s intellect. And any device, when misused, can be detrimental to society and individuals. AI is no different.

Source:

Infoworld

DELVING ‘DEEPER’ INTO AI: Key Differences between Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Deep Learning

The human race has been constantly challenging the notion of “impossible” for centuries. With unbelievable inventions and discoveries, we have emerged as a supreme species. We have carved an almost invincible niche for ourselves in the planet. And our successor-of-sorts is AI.

.AI is being used by individuals and groups across the globe. But there is an acute lack of awareness among many users about the precise difference between a machine performing a particular task mechanically and technology becoming independent to carry out these tasks. We’re back with a blog! Today, let’s look at AI at the macro as well as micro levels – with its two major offshoots: Machine Learning and Deep Learning.

1.Meet AI. Again. In All Its Glory.

While AI is, more often than not, an integral part of the modern world at various levels, it is often taken for granted in the sense that one rarely stops to ponder about the mechanisms involved in the working of AI. And when you open the door to the processes involved in AI, you unearth a Pandora’s box.

AI is a one-stop term for referring to the ability of machines to observe and understand certain rule-based tasks typically performed by humans, and then emulate these tasks in order to relieve humans of monotony, and pave the way for us to perform more intellectually stimulating tasks. Self-driving cars; video games; the names of your friends that your keyboard-prediction completes for you; your conversations with Siri and Alexa; and Amazon’s suggestions for you based on your previous online shopping spree – it’s time to thank AI for all of these supercool phenomena.

But…wait. Is a human secretly helping Siri follow my instructions every single time?
Have you ever wondered with amazement at how (at least most of the times) Siri is not only able to follow your instructions efficiently, but also converse with you spontaneously when you inquire about its personal life and well-being? And also come up with different, dynamic, even witty responses each time?
Obviously, the development of virtual assistants like Siri, Google Assistant and Alexa would be quite futile if humans were expected to function behind the scenes every single time, instructing these assistants to provide satisfactory answers to the users.

2.Enter, machine learning.

“The greatest sign of success for a teacher…is to be able to say, ‘The children are now working as if I did not exist,’” says Maria Montessori. And Machine Learning is technology’s teacher. ML uses the mechanisms of AI, but goes a step further. It ‘empowers’ technological equipment by making your machines not only intelligent, but also independent.

ML involves enabling our technological equipment to not only work efficiently on its own, but also to constantly adapt itself to any new information or experience over time. If your device is able to suggest those cool Versace leather-jackets for you based on your previous overcoat purchases on Amazon, you need to thank ML for it!

3.But hang on. Your machines are capable of EVEN ‘deeper’ stuff!

Try to think of the first time you, as a toddler, learnt to label a chair as ‘chair’. Now try and recollect the various other chairs you may have been accustomed to ever since. Were all these chairs identical to the one you had first labelled as a child? Most likely, not at all. But did you still find a broad similarity between all these chairs and label all of them under the umbrella-term of ‘chair’? That’s exactly what DL teaches machines to do.

While ML teaches technology to perform AI-based tasks independently, DL goes even beyond the ‘independence’ phase. It teaches your machines to also be smart enough to carry out abstract connections and form prototypical conceptualizations. It consists of certain algorithms that process and store every relevant input, based on which they come up with a statistical model. This becomes the prototypical output.

This process continues until a precise prototypical image of the output has been obtained. In our day-to-day lives, DL is able to predict and process extensive data online, and typically provide accurate solutions to the same. If ML enables online retail websites to suggest a certain brand of clothes based on your previous shopping records, DL takes online shopping to another level. If you have been repeatedly purchasing products whose target audience is women, DL not only provides you suggestions based on that classy pair of heels you bought the last time, but also some trending tops and accessories based on its prediction of your gender-identity. That’s the brilliance of DL.

Conclusion

And so, while AI is the broadest category that one can think of for machines being able to mimic humans in their mundane tasks, AI is not complete in itself, without its subsets of Machine Learning and Deep Learning. And together, AI, ML and DL constantly work in tandem in order to make our lives a little more efficient and productive, every single day.

AI IN PHARMA: The Role of Artificial Intelligence in the Pharmaceutical Industry

“Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there is also a love for humanity,” says Hippocrates.

From diagnosis and testing to prescription and treatment, the pharma industry works around the clock in order to ensure optimal health and well-being. Having said that, the various processes involved in pharmaceutical interventions are cumbersome and can be simplified. Enter AI.

Today, from chat-bots to self-driving cars, the world is approaching an AI renaissance of sorts. In such a scenario, can such an integral domain as pharma stay far behind? We are back with a blog, and this time, let’s consider the role of AI in pharma:

1. SAY GOODBYE TO ELABORATE TESTING LABS!

Testing and diagnosis forms a crucial part of the intervention process. This is because it provides the doctor and the patient with a definite direction in treatment and cure. The usual testing and diagnosis process consists of examining, in a laboratory, the collected samples of the patient, and detecting any abnormalities or irregular patterns in the same.

But with the advent of Artificial Intelligence, it is now possible to use a compressed version of lab testing, with the help of easy-to-use diagnostic kits. In fact, a report published by AIMEDIS suggests that in April 2018, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved to commercialize the first AI machine to detect diabetes retinopathy, a major eye disease.

2. ‘CLOUD NINE’ AIN’T FAR AWAY!

Need personalized medical treatment and solutions? AI has the perfect solution. AI now consists of a cloud-system called IBM Watson that can store large amounts of patient data. Then, with the help of this information, IBM Watson can come up with tailor-made solutions for each patient based on individual symptoms and requirements. Heard of “an apple a day keeps the doctor away”? How about we replace ‘apple’ with ‘AI’?

3. AND NOW, DR. ROBOT WILL PERFORM YOUR SURGERY…

Unless programmed in a faulty manner, robots cannot falter in their deeds. What if a perfectly designed robot performs surgery on a patient? While doctors are no less than demigods to us, they are just as human as any of us, and they deserve their own breaks and rest.

With AI and unbelievable advancement in robotic technology, robots can now be programmed to perform assisted surgery, which not only ensures absolute precision and better control of surgical instruments, but also provides surgeons with intermittent breaks during the course of the surgery. Moreover, with the help of Verb Surgical, a Johnson and Johnson initiative in collaboration with Google, it is now possible for surgeons to manage, with remarkable efficiency, all the stages of surgery. These include pre-surgery planning and preparation and post-surgery analysis and care.

4. CANCER IS CURABLE. AND AI’S CONTRIBUTION TO CANCER TREATMENT IS DURABLE!

AI is now being widely used in the various processes of cancer treatment, including diagnosis, treatment and radiation. The faculty of medicine at the Toronto University has come up with a unique software that utilizes the data obtained through radiation therapy. It uses this data to come up with customized treatment plans for the patients. IBM Watson is also being used in order to develop cancer treatment plans. Clinicians are still majorly involved in the entire radiation process. But AI might soon reduce the segmentation process duration from 4-5 hours to around an hour.

In addition, Genetech, a member of the Roche group (which is a research-based healthcare giant), in collaboration with GNS healthcare, has come up with a machine learning technology dedicated to cancer treatment. This software processes large amounts of data on cancer patients and converts these to computer models. These can be used to come up with new cancer interventions.

The sub-fields of pharmacy and medicine listed above are just the tips of the iceberg. AI is predicted to bring about huge changes in various stages and phases of cancer diagnosis, treatment and cure. While AI and robotics can provide personalized solutions and bring about efficiency in the process, any journey of medical intervention requires emotions and empathy. And that’s precisely why one cannot do away with humans in a profession as sensitive as medicine and pharmacy. Perhaps, if we attain the right balance between AI sensibility and human sensitivity, it is possible to achieve new heights in healthcare.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE VS. HUMAN INTELLIGENCE: THE BASIC DIFFERENCES

“The entire effort of artificial intelligence is essentially a fight against computers’ rigidity,” says Douglas Hofstadter.

“Hi, Alexa!” you say on a busy morning. And in the next few minutes, you are thanking the voice behind that device, which has performed some significant tasks for you.
You have an arm injury, but want to travel in the comfort of your vehicle. Your fully-automated car drops you to your workplace with zero efforts on your part.

Welcome to the magical world of AI! In this hastily transforming world of constant hustle-bustle, there’s no room for imperfection and time-lapse. While perfection is a utopian concept for humans, and cannot be expected of mere mortals, this and more is certainly being achieved by our very own Frankenstein’s monsters – Artificial Intelligence. Over the past few years, AI has taken unbelievable precedence over various walks of our lives; from education and industries to household and hospitality. While OK Google, Siri and Alexa compete to provide you best-quality services (and some ROFL moments too!), hotel industries are now making use of robots to take orders and deliver food.
But does the advent of AI threaten human intellect and agility in any way? Is the world becoming dangerously dependent on an external force? And have we worked so hard to build these artificial devices just so that we stop working?
We are back with a blog, to discuss the basic points of difference between our AI Frankenstein monsters and us:

1. “To err is human…” – in the truest sense

And that’s because AI cannot err. Of course, unless the human creating it may have committed an error. Artificial Intelligence is capable of performing even the most complex of tasks and algorithms with perfect ease and efficiency. Your AI does not recognize Monday Blues or Sunday offs. Or snoozing off at the traffic signal while driving.

2. “To be or not to be…” Ask AI!

Not only that, AI is also being used to predict future instances using the information available in the present. This feature of AI is being widely used in different domains; including data analytics, lead ranking and face recognition. These predictions often allow humans to take important decisions that can ensure a better future for the industry. Such predictions, if left to humans, may require them to invest a high amount of time and effort. But sometimes, it is also important to take those “emotional decisions” and make abstract considerations, which is clearly not AI’s forte.

3. Sorry. The creative juices don’t flow here.

OK Google might probably recite you a poignant poetry or two every once in a while, but that’s about it. It’s “inhuman” to expect human emotions and feelings out of AI. And that’s the reason one cannot instruct AI to come up with creative marketing strategies or out-of-the-box ideas.

4. All outcomes are created equal.

AI provides exactly the same treatment to every outcome of an activity, regardless of the number of times it has been instructed to carry it out. With humans, consistency (or the lack of it) can prove to be a major challenge, since not only two humans performing the same task, but even the same human carrying it out at different times, can produce remarkably different results.

5. Slow down, dear human….

The human-mind is an ocean, consisting of a huge reservoir of thoughts, emotions, feelings, sentiments…and all sorts of quirkiness, too. We are forever on our toes, trying to take leaps from one point to the other; and in the process, getting done a hoard of tasks all at once. But that’s not how AI works. Your AI tool cannot handle all your multitasking. The con – you have to be patient with it. The pro – the quality of work is never compromised for quantity.

6. Old is gold for AI

While you may be adventurous, outgoing and open to new experiences, AI is not easily adaptable to new changes, and takes quite some time to get accustomed to them.

7. Man is a social animal, but AI is not.

Humans have been surviving and thriving in a highly interactive, collaborative and communicative civilization. Unfortunately, AI is very new to this world, as still finds it a struggle to adapt to new and challenging social scenarios. For AI, the programmed information serves as the ultimate truth, and thinking beyond these boundaries of human programming is not its cup of tea.

At the end of the day, more than comparing human-intelligence with AI, it is important to realize that while AI consists simply of high IQ, human intelligence is a smart blend of IQ as well as EQ. So your AI can do wonders when it comes to rule-based tasks that do not require abstract thinking, but cannot handle tears and heartbeats. Hey, that’s probably why AI is also being used to do some risky tasks that humans cannot perform due to emotional and mental vulnerability. Food for thought!

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